History Under Debate: International Reflection on the Discipline
The Inequality Debate: Why Now, Why like This?
The rise of public history since the s has been an acknowledgment that non-professional historians can produce history outside universities. The relevance of non-traditional public history practices explains why the digital turn concurs with the boom of public history. The Internet and digital history are the main advertisers of public history. First, public history was born local. Only a minority of public historians has international audiences. Since public history is as much about working for the public as making history a participatory process, international projects appear all the more challenging.
It is still unclear how an international public could participate in an international project. In international discussions about public history, another worry is about the uses of the past for present purposes. Acknowledged by public historians, academic historians are — at the very least — uncomfortable with the applications of the past.
Already in the early s, G. Wesley Johnson noticed that German and French scholars refused to hear about historians involved in political and for-profit uses of the past. Any attempt to internationalize public history faces disagreements on the definitions and purposes of the field.
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Despite the many obstacles, I agree with Noiret on the need to internationalize public history literature, projects, and forums that are mostly in English. The international conference in Brazil demonstrates that public history has a potential international dimension. Although they may speak different languages, and be specialists in very different thematic and geographical fields, public historians communicate about practices such as oral history, cultural resources management, or digital history.
Public history practices unit practitioners from all over the world. This is why public historians from North America are increasingly paying attention to what other public historians do in New Zealand, Europe, or China.
Noiret finishes his post by underlining how the glocal dimension can be beneficial to public historians. Like Zachary McKiernan in his post about the utility of an international public history, he argues for building strong links between the local and the global. We touch here upon one crucial role for public historians: to help make sense to the past and provide a broad contextualized understanding of the past that goes beyond the personal use of history.
I am convinced, as Noiret, that internationalizing pubic history can help practitioners to contribute to a better public understanding of the past. Examples of collaboration for international public history teaching, international traveling exhibitions, and international digital history projects may, as a next step, help readers to better understand the assets of an international public history.
For instance, the universities of Hertfordshire UK  and North Carolina at Wilmington USA provide their students with the opportunities to collaborate with each-others. Likewise PhotosNormandie encourages international audiences to participate in a crowdsourcing project to identify and analyze photographs of D-Day in Normandy.
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- 1 Introduction.
We should absolutely agree with him about that point. But speaking of Public History as a global discipline and not just a movement, we—once again—have to clarify the character of disciplines in diverse national higher education systems, to begin with the different conceptions of Public History in German Historiography and History Didactics.
Fields and subfields
Glocal research projects are attractive, because the places where history happened are usually known to us and the sound of their terminologies appears familiar. But besides the strengthening of the individuals historical situatedness in a broader living environment, there seems to be another advantage: Glocal research projects always help Public Historians to make a genuine scientific workflow more transparent for the public while working directly with and for the citizens.
This is important not only for the simple reason that the legitimation of historical research activities is closely connected to the questions the public addresses at the past. Second, the participatory Web 2. The participatory Web 2. Both aspects, the transparence of the genuine scientific workflow as well as the positive effects of the participatory Web 2. Furthermore, both aspects are of substantial value within the in Germany and other parts of Europe badly needed discussion about the common grounds and the differences between History and Public History.
First of all I would like to thank Thomas Cauvin and Cord Arendes for their insights and for pushing further the discussion about internationalization of the public history field through different common practices and academic teaching.
I stressed the fact that Public History with or without using the name—the practice of history everywhere with and for the public—is taking place in Europe and, maybe, always took place. And this is changing slowly today. Two will be launched in France.riamonwithskalif.tk
From evolution to discourse: Key conceptual debates in the history and study of traumatic stress
Furthermore, in Italy this March , the 3rd edition of the 2nd level Master in History Communication Comunicazione della Storia  was celebrated at the University of Bologna. Contrary to early predictions, the informal economy has continued to grow and has appeared in new forms. It was widely assumed that, with the right mix of economic policies and resources, low-income traditional economies could be transformed into dynamic, modern economies and petty traders, small producers and many casual jobs would be absorbed into the formal economy.
By the mids, however, optimism about economic growth in developing countries began to give way to concerns about widespread unemployment and persistent traditional economy. The mission team found that the traditional sector had not just persisted, but had expanded to include profitable and efficient enterprises as well as marginal activities ILO Both Hart and the Kenya mission noted the efficiency, creativity and resilience of the sector, but the concept got a mixed reception in development circles.
Many held that the informal economy in developing countries was peripheral and not linked to the formal economy or to modern capitalist development, and would disappear with economic growth or modern industrial development. Others argued that industrial development might take a different pattern in developing countries than in developed countries, including the expansion of informal economic activities.
By the s, the debate expanded to include changes occurring in advanced capitalist economies, where production was being reorganized into small, decentralized and more flexible economic units. These changes are associated with the informalization of employment. Standard jobs turned into non-standard or atypical jobs, with hourly wages and few benefits — or production was contracted on piece rate with no benefit to small, informal units and industrial outworkers.
The informal economy became a permanent, albeit subordinate and dependent, feature of capitalist development Portes, Castells and Benton Economic crises such as those in Latin America in the s and in Asia in the s demonstrated that people who lose formal jobs turn to the informal economy to earn their livelihoods. As well, high inflation often requires households to supplement formal-sector incomes with informal earnings.
During the s, globalization also contributed to the informalization of the workforce in many industries and countries Standing There is renewed interest in the informal economy worldwide. In part, this is because the informal economy has not only grown, but also emerged in new guises and in unexpected places. It represents a significant, but largely over-looked, share of the global economy and workforce.
There has also been an increased recognition that the informal economy is linked to the formal economy and contributes to the overall economy, and that supporting the working poor in the informal economy is important for reducing poverty and inequality, just as supporting working poor women in the informal economy is important for reducing gender inequality. Examine new trends in the writing of new historyand what they mean to information science! History has been devalued, causing a lack of career prospects for historians, a decrease in vocations to the history profession, and historical discontinuity between generations.
This book details the comparative critical perspectives on history, historians, their audiences, and the coming trends that will inevitably impact information science.
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The in-depth examination provides innovative approaches to historians as they redefine their discipline in relation to the global society of the new millennium while presenting invaluable insights for librarians, social scientists, and political scientists. History Under Debate: International Reflection on the Discipline examines how the writing of history in the twenty-first century is revitalized by international comparative historiography, thanks to new technologies and the multinational integration processes in economy, politics, culture, and academics. The first section discusses the Historia a Debate HaD Forum and Movement, detailing the need for change to restore history as a vital global subject in modern times.
The remainder of the book consists of reflective and comparative views on the study of history and historiography as well as history in and about Spain and its relation to the rest of the world. The book explores new ways for moving the discipline beyond sources and source criticism alone to a different concept of the historical profession as a science with a human subject that discovers the past as people construct it.